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A systematic review found single applications of massage therapy "reduced state anxiety, blood pressure, and heart rate but not negative mood, immediate assessment of pain, and cortisol level", while "multiple applications reduced delayed assessment of pain", and found improvements in anxiety and depression similar to effects of psychotherapy.

Myofascial release refers to the manual massage technique that claims to release adhered fascia and muscles with the goal of eliminating pain , increasing range of motion and equilibrioception. Myofascial release usually involves applying shear compression or tension in various directions, cross fiber friction or by skin rolling. Reflexology also known as "zone therapy", is an alternative medicine involving application of pressure to the feet and hands with specific thumb, finger, and hand techniques without the use of oil or lotion.

It is based on a pseudoscientific [49] system of zones and reflex areas that purportedly reflect an image of the body on the feet and hands, with the premise that such work effects a physical change to the body. There is no convincing data available to suggest that shiatsu is an effective treatment for any medical condition.

Structural Integration 's aim is to unwind the strain patterns residing in the body's myofascial system, restoring it to its natural balance, alignment, length, and ease. This is accomplished by deep, slow, fascial and myofascial manipulation, coupled with movement re-education. The most widely recognized and commonly used category of massage is the Swedish massage.

The Swedish massage techniques vary from light to vigorous. Elsewhere the style is referred to as "classic massage". Clinical studies report that Swedish Massage can effectively reduce low back pain and the effectiveness can last for as long as 15 weeks.

One study reported that Swedish Massage caused reduction in salivary cortisol indicating its role in management of stress and improvement in mood. It is a deep, full-body massage progressing from the feet up, and focusing on sen or energy lines throughout the body, with the aim of clearing blockages in these lines, and thus stimulating the flow of blood and lymph throughout the body.

It draws on yoga , acupressure and reflexology. Thai Massage is a popular massage therapy that is used for management of conditions such as musculoskeletal pain and fatigue. Thai Massage involves a number of stretching movements that improve body flexibility, joint movement and also improve blood circulation throughout the body. In one study scientists found that Thai Massage showed comparable efficacy as the painkiller ibuprofen in reduction of joint pain caused by osteoarthritis OA of the knee.

Technique such as friction and vibration are used as well. Sometimes confused with pressure point massage, [9] this involves deactivating trigger points that may cause local pain or refer pain and other sensations, such as headaches, in other parts of the body. Manual pressure, vibration, injection, or other treatment is applied to these points to relieve myofascial pain.

Trigger points were first discovered and mapped by Janet G. Travell President Kennedy's physician and David Simons. Trigger points have been photomicrographed and measured electrically [62] and in a paper was presented showing images of Trigger Points using MRI. Tui na is a Chinese manual therapy technique that includes many different types of strokes, aimed to improve the flow of chi through the meridians. Watsu, developed by Harold Dull at Harbin Hot Springs, California , is a type of aquatic bodywork performed in near-body-temperature water, and characterized by continuous support by the practitioner and gentle movement, including rocking, stretching of limbs, and massage.

The technique combines hydrotherapy floating and immersion with shiatsu and other massage techniques. Watsu is used as a form of aquatic therapy for deep relaxation and other therapeutic intent. Specialized massage tables and chairs are used to position recipients during massages. A typical commercial massage table has an easily cleaned, heavily padded surface, and a horseshoe-shaped head support that allows the client to breathe easily while lying face down and can be stationary or portable, while home versions are often lighter weight or designed to fold away easily.

An orthopedic pillow or bolster can be used to correct body positioning. Ergonomic chairs serve a similar function as a massage table. Chairs may be either stationary or portable models. Massage chairs are easier to transport than massage tables, and recipients do not need to disrobe to receive a chair massage.

Due to these two factors, chair massage is often performed in settings such as corporate offices, outdoor festivals, shopping malls, and other public locations. Temperature-controlled warm-water therapy pools are used to perform aquatic bodywork. A dry-water massage table uses jets of water to perform the massage of the client's muscles. These tables differ from a Vichy shower in that the client usually stays dry.

Two common types are one in which the client lies on a waterbed-like mattress which contains warm water and jets of water and air bubbles and one in which the client lies on a foam pad and is covered by a plastic sheet and is then sprayed by jets of warm water, similar to a Vichy shower. A Vichy shower is a form of hydrotherapy which uses a series of shower nozzles which spray large quantities of water over the client while they lie in a shallow wet bed, similar to a massage table, but with drainage for the water.

The nozzles may usually be adjusted for height, direction, and temperature to suit the client's needs. Many different types of massage cremes, lotions, gels, and oils are used to lubricate and moisturize the skin and reduce the friction between skin hands of technician and client. A body rock is a serpentine-shaped tool, usually carved out of stone. It is used to amplify the therapist's strength and focus pressure on certain areas.

It can be used directly on the skin with a lubricant such as oil or corn starch or directly over clothing. Bamboo and rosewood tools are also commonly implemented. They originate from practices in southeast Asia, Thailand, Cambodia, and Burma. Some of them may be heated, oiled, or wrapped in cloth. The main professionals that provide therapeutic massage are massage therapists, athletic trainers , physical therapists and practitioners of many traditional Chinese and other eastern medicines.

Massage practitioners work in a variety of medical settings and may travel to private residences or businesses. Many types of practices are associated with massage and include bodywork , manual therapy , energy medicine , and breathwork.

Body-mind integration techniques stress self-awareness and movement over physical manipulations by a practitioner. Massage can also have connections with the New Age movement and alternative medicine as well as holistice philosophies of preventative medical care, as well as being used by mainstream medical practitioners.

Peer-reviewed medical research has shown that the benefits of massage include pain relief , reduced trait anxiety and depression , and temporarily reduced blood pressure, heart rate, and state of anxiety. Theories behind what massage might do include blocking nociception gate control theory , activating the parasympathetic nervous system , which may stimulate the release of endorphins and serotonin , preventing fibrosis or scar tissue , increasing the flow of lymph , and improving sleep , [9] but such effects are yet to be supported by well-designed clinical studies.

Massage is hindered from reaching the gold standard of scientific research , which includes placebo -controlled and double blind clinical trials. Massage has been shown to reduce neuromuscular excitability by measuring changes in the Hoffman's reflex H-reflex amplitude.

A decrease in peak-to-peak H-reflex amplitude suggests a decrease in motoneuron excitability. Proprioceptive studies are much more abundant than massage and proprioception combined, yet researchers are still trying to pinpoint the exact mechanisms and pathways involved to get a fuller understanding.

Some researchers believe "documenting what happens under the skin, bioelectrically and biochemically, will be enabled by newer, non-invasive technology such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and continuous plasma sampling". Because the art and science of massage is a globally diverse phenomenon, different legal jurisdictions sometimes recognize and license individuals with titles, while other areas do not.

In some [ which? In regulated provinces massage therapists are known as Registered Massage Therapists, in Canada only four provinces regulate massage therapy: Massage therapists may obtain a certification with one of various associations operating. Most types of massage, with the exception of some traditional Chinese medicine are not regulated in China. Although illegal in China, some of the smaller businesses are fronts for prostitution.

France requires three years of study and two final exams in order to apply for a license. In Germany massage is regulated by the government on a federal and national level. Only someone who has completed 3, hours of training theoretical and practical can use the professional title "Masseur und Medizinischer Bademeister" or Medical Masseur and Spa Therapist.

This person can prolong his training depending on the length of professional experience to a Physiotherapist 1 year to 18 months additional training. During the training they will study: They are trained in Electrotherapy , and Hydrotherapy. Kneipp, Wraps, underwater Massage, therapeutic washing, Sauna and Steambath. A small part of their training will include special forms of massage which are decided by the local college, for example: Foot reflex zone massage, Thai Massage etc.

Finally a graduate is allowed to treat patients under the direction of a doctor. He is regulated by the professional body which regulates Physiotherapists. This includes the restriction on advertising and oath of confidentiality to clients. Massage therapy is based on Ayurveda, the ancient medicinal system that evolved around BC.

In ayurveda , massage is part of a set of holistic medicinal practices, contrary to the independent massage system popular in some other systems. In Siddha, Tamil traditional medicine from south India, massage is termed as "Thokkanam" and is classified in to nine types, each for specific variety of disease.

In Japan, shiatsu is regulated but oil massage and Thai massage are not. Although prostitution is illegal, prostitutes posing as massage therapists in fashion health shops and pink salons are fairly common in the larger cities.

In Myanmar , massage is unregulated. Blind and visually impaired people can become masseurs, but they are not issued licenses. There are a few professional spa training schools in Myanmar but these training centers are not accredited by the government.

In Mexico massage therapists, called " sobadores ", combine massage using oil or lotion [86] with a form of acupuncture and faith. In many parts of Mexico prostitution is legal and prostitutes are allowed to sell sexual massage.

These businesses are often confined to a specific area of the city, such as the Zona Norte in Tijuana. In New Zealand, massage is unregulated. There are two levels of registration with Massage New Zealand, the professional body for massage therapists within New Zealand, although neither of these levels are government recognised. Registration at the Certified Massage Therapist level denotes competency in the practice of relaxation massage.

Registration at the Remedial massage therapist denotes competency in the practice of remedial or orthopedic massage. Both levels of registration are defined by agreed minimum competencies and minimum hours. In South Africa, massage is regulated, but enforcement is poor. The 2 year qualification includes credits, about 80 case studies, and about hours community service. In South Korea , blind and visually impaired people can become licensed masseurs.

In Thailand , Thai massage is officially listed as one of the branches of traditional Thai medicine , recognized and regulated by the government. It is considered to be a medical discipline in its own right and is used for the treatment of a wide variety of ailments and conditions. Massage schools, centers, therapists, and practitioners are increasingly regulated by the Ministries of Education and Public Health in Thailand. Therapists with appropriate paperwork and insurance may join the Complementary and Natural Healthcare Council CNHC , a voluntary, government regulated, professional register.

Its key aim being to protect the public. In addition there are many professional bodies which have a required minimum standard of education and hold relevant insurance policies including: According to research done by the American Massage Therapy Association, as of in the United States there are between , and , massage therapists and massage school students.

If a state does not have any massage laws then a practitioner need not apply for a license with the state. However, the practitioner will need to check whether any local or county laws cover massage therapy. Training programs in the US are typically — hours in length, and can award a certificate, diploma, or degree depending on the particular school.

Forty-three states, the District of Columbia and five Canadian provinces currently offer some type of credential to professionals in the massage and bodywork field—usually licensure, certification or registration. There are two tests available and one can become certified through a portfolio process with equivalent training and experience. In the US, licensure is the highest level of regulation and this restricts anyone without a license from practicing massage therapy or by calling themselves that protected title.

Certification allows only those who meet certain educational criteria to use the protected title and registration only requires a listing of therapists who apply and meet an educational requirement. Licensing requirements vary per state, and often require additional criteria be met in addition to attending an accredited massage therapy school and passing a required state specified exam basically the certification requirements in many states. In the US, most certifications are locally based.

However, as of March , some states still do not require a license or a certification. Furthermore, some states allow license reciprocity where massage therapists who relocate can relatively easily obtain a license in their new state. Not all states provide this option. In there were an estimated million visits to massage therapists in the US.

People state that they use massage because they believe that it relieves pain from musculoskeletal injuries and other causes of pain, reduces stress and enhances relaxation , rehabilitates sports injuries, decreases feelings of anxiety and depression, and increases general well being. In Duke University Health System opened up a center to integrate medical disciplines with CAM disciplines such as massage therapy and acupuncture.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Chinese novel by Bi Feiyu, see Massage novel. For the film, see Massagist film. Retrieved 26 February The History of Massage: An Illustrated Survey from Around the World. Retrieved 15 August Kellogg MD page 9. William Morrow and Co. Archived from the original on 7 August Retrieved 5 August Retrieved 26 September Gynecology and Obstetrics , vol.

Archived 17 December at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 15 June Int J Hist Sport. Retrieved 31 August Central Maryland School of Massage. Retrieved 8 July A abnocto to aveste ". Retrieved 27 September Hands-on therapy attracting more patients". Archived from the original on 16 June Journal of Pain and Symptom Management.

Aquatic bodywork-water-based therapies are growing in popularity. Massage and Bodywork 20 5: Int J Pharmacol and Clin Sci. J Soc Integr Oncol. Der Hautarzt in German. Connecting Body and Soul 1st ed. Buy Best Massage Chair. Archived from the original on 18 March Retrieved 15 April J Korean Acad Nurs. Modalities for Massage and Bodywork. The Bodywork and Massage Sourcebook.

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